Note: Most of my Persian language books and articles are available at



  • 2016. “The Office of the Supreme Leader: Epicenter of a Theocracy,” with Kourosh Rahimkhani, in Daniel Brumberg and Farideh Farhi, eds., Power and Change in Iran: Politics of Contention and Conciliation, pp. 135-165 (Indiana University Press, 2016).
  • 2016. “Iran,” in Ellen Lust, ed., The Middle East, 14th edition (Sage/Congressional Quarterly, forthcoming 2016). [An earlier version of this chapter appeared in the 13thedition, pp. 478-506, 2013 and 12th edition, pp. 411-36, 2010].
  • 2015. “The Unfolding of Unreason: Javad Tabatabai’s Idea of Political Decline in Iran,” with Alireza Shomali, Iranian Studies (vol. 48, no. 6), pp. 949-965.
  • 2013. “On Sa`di’s Treatise on Advice to the Kings.” (co-authored with Alireza Shomali). In Mehrzad Boroujerdi (ed.), Mirror for the Muslim Prince: Islam and Theory of Statecraft, pp. 45-81.
  • 2013. “Farhang Siyasi Jame’h az Farhang Hamegani Joda Nist [Political Culture is not Separate from Popular Culture,” Shargh Daily (2 Esfand 1391/February 20), p. 11.
  • 2013. “Cheragh Rah Bud [He was the Light of the Road],” Andisheh Pouya, no. 5 (Day-Bahman 1391/January 2013), p. 150.
  • 2012. “Islam and the Promenades of Global Media” (with Nicole J. Allem). In Timothy S. Shah, Alfred Stepan, and Monica D. Toft (eds., Rethinking Religion and World Affairs. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 217-228.
  • 2012. “Humble Secularism.” In Ramin Jahanbegloo (ed.), Civil Society and Democracy in Iran. New York: Lexington Press, pp. 119-126.
  • 2012. (with Todd Fine). “Negotiation is Still the Best Option: Revisiting the Iranian Nuclear Issue
  • 2012. “Rouyahay-e Javanan-e Arab [The Dreams of Arab Youth],” Mehr Nameh, no. 18 (Day 1390/January), p. 28.
  • 2011.  “Critique of Hatam Qaderi’s Views on Citizenship,” Shahrvand Emrouz, 4: 84 (22 Mordad 1390/August 13, 2011), pp. 12-13.
  • 2008.  “Experience of an Immigrant,” Shahrvand Emrouz, 3: 50 (26 Khordad 1387/15 June), p. 33 (in Persian).
  • 2008.  “Iranian Intellectuals and the Coming to Power of Reza Shah,” Kargozaaran, (22-23 Aban 1387/12-13 November), p. 9 (in Persian).
  • 2007.  Iranian Nuclear Miasma” (with Todd Fine), Syracuse Law Review, 57: 3, pp. 619-635.
  • 2007.  Bet on the Optimists: Prospects for Reform,” Foreign Service Journal (June), pp. 26-31.
  • 2006.  “‘The West’ in the Eyes of the Iranian Intellectuals of the Interwar Years (1919-1939),”Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 26: 3, pp. 391-401. 
  • 2004.  “The Reformist Movement in Iran.” In Daniel Heradstveit and Helge Hveem, eds. Oil in the Gulf: Obstacles to Democracy and Development, pp. 63-71. London: Ashgate.
  • German translation: “Die Reformbewegung in Iran,” Sowi: Das Journal fur Geschichte, Politik, Wirtschaft und Kulture (February 2005), pp. 37-44.
  • 2003.  “Triumphs and Travails of Authoritarian Modernization in Iran.” In Stephanie Cronin, ed.The Making of Modern Iran: State and Society Under Riza Shah, 1921-1941, pp. 146-154. London: Routledge.
  • Persian translation: Iran Nameh [a leading Persian language journal of Iranian Studies], 20: 4 (Fall 2002), pp. 475-488;
  • 2003.  The Ambivalent Modernity of Iranian Intellectuals.” In Negin Nabavi, ed. Intellectual Trends in Twentieth-Century Iran: A Critical Survey, pp. 11-23. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
  • Persian translation: “Rowshanfekran Iran va Moderniteh: Roykardi Doganeh,” Iran Nameh, 20: 2-3 (Spring & Summer 2002), pp. 285-299.
  • 2002.  “Subduing Globalization: The Challenge of the Indigenization Movement.” In Richard Grant and John R. Short, eds. Globalization and the Margins, pp. 39-49. New York: Palgrave.
  • Reprinted in Birgit Schäebler and Leif Stenberg, eds. Globalization and the Muslim World: Culture, Religion and Modernity, pp. 30-38. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.  [PDF]
  • 2001-2002. “Viewing Violence and Terrorism in a Larger Context,” Syracuse University Magazine, 18: 4 (Winter), pp. 42-44.
  • An abbreviated version of this essay was published in Maxwell Perspective, 12: 1 (Fall 2001), pp. 10-11.
  • 2001.  “The Paradoxes of Politics in Post-revolutionary Iran.” In John L. Esposito and R. K. Ramazani, eds. Iran at the Crossroads, pp. 13-27. New York: Palgrave.
  • 2001.  “What Have We Learned About Iranian Politics?” Aftab, 5 [a monthly magazine of political, economic & social issues published in Tehran] (June), pp. 4-5 (Persian PDF).
  • 2001.  “Dialogue with Diasporic Iranians,” Bukhara, 16 [a leading Review of Arts, Culture, and Humanities published in Tehran] (January-February), pp. 297-306 (in Persian).
  • 2000.  “Continuities and Discontinuities in Modern Iranian Intellectual Thought.” In Haleh Esfandiari, Andrea Bertone and Farideh Farhi, eds. Intellectual Change and the New Generation of Iranian Intellectuals, pp. 13-18.  Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
  • Turkish translation: “Modern Iran Entelektüel Düsüncesinde Süreklilikler ve Kopuslar,” Dogudan(January-February 2008).
  • 1998.  “Contesting Nationalist Constructions of Iranian Identity,” Critique: Journal for Critical Studies of the Middle East, 12 (Spring): 43-55.
  • Persian translation: Kiyan [a leading Iranian journal on philosophy, religion and literature], 47 (June-July 1999), pp. 44-52.
  • 1998.  “Challenges to the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Their Northern Neighbors: An Integrated View of Empirical Indicators,” (co-authored with Haleh Vaziri), The Iranian Journal of International Affairs, 10: 1-2 (Spring/Summer), pp. 36-71.
  • 1997.  “Khatami’s Election: Implications for Iranian Politics.” In John Calabrese, ed. Iran’s Elections: Implications for U.S. Policy, pp. 5-7. Washington, D.C.: Middle East Institute.
  • Reprinted in The Middle East Economic Survey, 40: 31 (August 4, 1997), pp. D3-D5.
  • 1997.  “Iranian Islam and the Faustian Bargain of Western Modernity,” Journal of Peace Research, 34: 1 (February), pp. 1-5.
  • Persian translation: Neshat [a popular daily newspaper published in Tehran] (July 8, 1999), p. 9.
  • 1997.  “Orientalism in Reverse,” Kiyan, 35 (March), pp. 22-31 (in Persian).
  • 1996.  “Iran’s Intellectual Panorama,” Bulletin of the Center for Iranian Research and Analysis, 11: 3 (Spring), pp. 22-24.
  • 1995.  “Iranian Cultural Identity: A Dissident View,” Kankash [a Persian language journal specializing in theoretical study of Iranian history, politics and culture], 12 (Fall), pp. 9-33 (in Persian).
  • 1995.  “Hizbullah in Iran.” In John Esposito, ed. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, vol. 2, pp. 129-130. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • 1994.  “Can an Islam be Secularized?” In M.R. Ghanoonparvar and Faridoun Farrokh, eds. In Transition: Essays on Culture and Identity in the Middle Eastern Society, pp. 55-64.  Laredo, TX: Texas A&M International University.
  • [Persian] translation: Kiyan, no. 49 (September-December 1999), pp. 40-44.
  • 1994.  “The Encounter of Post-revolutionary Thought in Iran with Hegel, Heidegger and Popper.” In Serif Mardin, ed. Cultural Transitions in the Middle East, pp. 236-259. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  • 1993.  “Rethinking The Third World,” (co-authored with Ali Mirsepassi), International Third World Studies Journal and Review, 5: 1, pp. 51-58.
  • 1992.  “Gharbzadegi: The Dominant Intellectual Discourse of Pre and Post-revolutionary Iran.” In Samih K. Farsoun and Mehrdad Mashayekhi (eds.), Iran: Political Culture in the Islamic Republic, pp. 30-56. London: Routledge.
  • Persian translation: In Farhang-e Siyasi Dar Jomhuriyeh Eslami-e Iran (Tehran: Entehsarat-e Baz, 1379 [2000]), pp. 51-80.
  • 1992.  “Prospects for Civil Society and Secularism in Iran,” Kankash, 8 (Spring), pp. 13-44 (in Persian).
  • 1990.  “Westoxication and Orientalism in Reverse,” Iran Nameh, 8: 3 (Summer), pp. 375-390 (in Persian).
  • 1989.  “The Distinctive Features of the Iranian Revolution,” Kankash, 5 (Fall), pp. 19-49 (in Persian).
  • 1988.  “Iranian Intellectuals and the Enigma of Westernization,” Kankash, 2&3 (Spring), pp. 11-47 (in Persian).


  • 2008.  “Joint Experts’ Statement on Iran”.
  • 2005.  “Iran Briefing Paper.” In Advanced Placement Program Professional Development for Government and Politics – Comparative: 2004-2005 Workshop Materials, pp. 1-59. New York: College Board.
  • 2005.  “Why and What Do We Compare? The Story of Revolution and Democratization.” In College Board Advanced Placement Government and Politics: Comparative: 2005-2006 Professional Development Workshop Materials, pp. 30-44. New York: The College Board.



  • 2010. “Violent Politics But Not Yet a Revolution in Iran,” Khaleej Times (February 23).
  • 2008.  “Ignore Iran’s Exile Dream Merchants,” The Daily Star [Beirut, Lebanon] (June 24) (co-authored with Geneive Abdo).
  • 2008.  “APSA at MESA 2007: Building Linkages Between Civil Society and Constitutionalism,” Newsletter of the Association for the Study of Persianate Societies, 4: 20.
  • 2008.  “Another Moment of Truth in Pakistan,” The [Syracuse] Post-Standard (Jan. 6), pp. E1, 4.
  • 2006.  “Will Iran Agree to Talk to U.S.?” The [Syracuse] Post-Standard (December 10), p. E1.
  • 2004.  Letter to the Editor: “Story on Iranian Bomb Fanned Flames of Discord,Syracuse Post-Standard (April 29), p. A17.
  • 1998.  “U.S. Should Drop Gunboat Diplomacy in Middle East.” The [Syracuse] Post-Standard (April 2), p. A15.


  • 2011. Review of Said Amir Arjomand, After Khomeini: Iran Under His Successors; Mehran Kamrava, Iran’s Intellectual Revolution; and Ali Mirsepassi, Democracy in Modern Iran: Islam, Culture, and Political Change. In Perspectives on Politics 9: 3 (Sepember): 729-731. Abbreviated Persian version appeared in Anisheh Pouya, no. 3 (2012).
  • 2002.  Review of Daniel Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran. In American Political Science Review 96: 4 (December): 843-844.
  • 2002.  Review of Fariba Adelkhah, Being Modern in Iran. In Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 18: 1 (April): 90-95.
  • 2001.  Review of Masoud Kamali, Revolutionary Iran: Civil Society and State in the Modernization Process. In Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 35: 1 (Summer): 117-118.
  • 2001.  Review of Abdolkarim Soroush, Reason, Freedom, and Democracy in Islam. In Middle East Journal 55: 3 (Summer): 519-520.
  • 2000.  Review of Ali Gheissari, Iranian Intellectuals in the 20th Century. In Journal of Iranian Research and Analysis 16: 1 (April): 135-136.
  • 2000.  Review of Azadeh Kian-Thiebaut, Secularization of Iran A Doomed Failure? The New Middle Class and the Making of Modern Iran. In Middle East Journal 54: 1 (Winter): 126-127.
  • 1998.  Review of Asghar Schirazi, The Constitution of Iran: Politics and the State in the Islamic Republic. In Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 32 (Winter): 260-261.
  • 1996.  Review of Nikki R. Keddie, Iran and the Muslim World: Resistance and Revolution. InContemporary Sociology 25 (September): 628-629.
  • 1996.  Review of Simon Bromley, Rethinking Middle East Politics. In International Journal of Middle East Studies 28 (May): 259-261.
  • 1996.  Review of K. L. Afrasiabi, After Khomeini: New Directions in Iran’s Foreign Policy. In Middle East Journal 50 (Spring): 274-275.
  • 1994.  Review of Mehran Kamrava, The Political History of Modern Iran: From Tribalism to Theocracy. In International Journal of Middle East Studies 26 (May): 315-316.
  • 1992.  Review of Mark J. Gasiorowski, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah; and George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East. In American Political Science Review 86 (December): 1102-1103.
  • 1992.  Review of Ian Brown, Khomeini’s Forgotten Son’s: The Story of Iran’s Boy Soldiers; and Dilip Hiro, The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. In Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 26 (July): 87-89.
  • 1992.  Review of Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Manshour Varasteh, Iran and the International Community. In Middle East Journal 46 (Spring): 322-323.
  • 1992.  Review of Barry Rubin, Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. In Millennium: Journal of International Studies 21 (Spring): 130-131.
  • 1990.  Review of Misagh Parsa, Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution. In Journal of Iranian Studies 23: 112-114.